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Immunogenicity of a single-dose compared with a two-dose primary series followed by a booster dose of ten-valent or 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in South African children: an open-label, randomised, non-inferiority trial

30 Aug, 2020


Routine childhood immunisation with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) has changed the epidemiology of pneumococcal disease across age groups, providing an opportunity to reconsider PCV dosing schedules. We aimed to evaluate the post-booster dose immunogenicity of ten-valent (PCV10) and 13-valent (PCV13) PCVs between infants randomly assigned to receive a single-dose compared with a two-dose primary series.


We did an open-label, non-inferiority, randomised study in HIV-unexposed infants at a single centre in Soweto, South Africa. Infants were randomly assigned to receive one priming dose of PCV10 or PCV13 at ages 6 weeks (6w + 1 PCV10 and 6w + 1 PCV13 groups) or 14 weeks (14w + 1 PCV10 and 14w + 1 PCV13 groups) or two priming doses of PCV10 or PCV13, one each at ages 6 weeks and 14 weeks (2 + 1 PCV10 and 2 + 1 PCV13 groups); all participants then received a booster dose of PCV10 or PCV13 at 40 weeks of age. The primary endpoint was geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) of serotype-specific IgG 1 month after the booster dose, which was assessed in all participants who received PCV10 or PCV13 as per the assigned randomisation group and for whom laboratory results were available at that timepoint. The 1 + 1 vaccine schedule was considered non-inferior to the 2 + 1 vaccine schedule if the lower bound of the 96% CI for the GMC ratio was greater than 0·5 for at least ten PCV13 serotypes and eight PCV10 serotypes. Safety was a secondary endpoint. This trial is registered with (NCT02943902) and is ongoing.

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