Overview of the current promising approaches for the development of an effective severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine1 Sep, 2020Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic infectious disease caused by the novel coronavirus called SARS-CoV-2. There is a gap in our understanding regarding the immunopathogenesis of COVID-19. However, many clinical trials are underway across the world for screening effective drugs against COVID-19. Nevertheless, currently, no proven effective therapies for this virus exists. The vaccines are deemed as a significant part of disease prevention for emerging viral diseases, since, in se...0
Elimination of COVID-19: what would it look like and is it possible?30 Aug, 2020In countries that have achieved a low incidence of COVID-19 infection, such as Australia and New Zealand, disease elimination has been proposed. Yet we do not have a definition of elimination for COVID-19. Both these countries implemented early, widespread, and strict disease mitigation strategies. With low cumulative incidence, most of the population in these countries remain susceptible to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Before the availability of a vaccin...
Facial Trauma Management during the COVID-19 era: a primer for surgeons30 Aug, 2020Abstract
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused more than 6.1 million confirmed cases of COVID-19 in more than 188 countries, and has caused more than 370,000 deaths globally as of June 1, 2020. In addition, thousands of healthcare workers have also got infected with the virus. COVID-19 patients release large amounts of infectious viral particles in form of droplets from cough, sneeze and respiratory secretions....
Immunogenicity of a single-dose compared with a two-dose primary series followed by a booster dose of ten-valent or 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in South African children: an open-label, randomised, non-inferiority trial30 Aug, 2020BackgroundRoutine childhood immunisation with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) has changed the epidemiology of pneumococcal disease across age groups, providing an opportunity to reconsider PCV dosing schedules. We aimed to evaluate the post-booster dose immunogenicity of ten-valent (PCV10) and 13-valent (PCV13) PCVs between infants randomly assigned to receive a single-dose compared with a two-dose primary series.MethodsWe did an open-label, non-inferiority, randomised study in HIV-unexp...
A prospective cohort study of the impact of covid19 world pandemic on the management of emergency surgical pathology28 Aug, 2020Editor
The global pandemic due to the SARS‐Cov‐2 virus is having an unprecedented impact on surgical procedures1. Despite having started multiple analyzes on surgery during the pandemic2, there have been no studies on the impact of its on the management of emergency surgical pathology. Thus, a comparative cohort study of prospective databases was done. Study group (n = 127) included emergency surgeries done during COVID‐19 pandemic: between March 11, 2020 (declaration of a global...
The potential public health consequences of COVID-19 on malaria in Africa28 Aug, 2020Abstract
The burden of malaria is heavily concentrated in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) where cases and deaths associated with COVID-19 are rising1. In response, countries are implementing societal measures aimed at curtailing transmission of SARS-CoV-22,3. Despite these measures, the COVID-19 epidemic could still result in millions of deaths as local health facilities become overwhelmed4. Advances in malaria control this century have been largely due to distribution of long-lasting insecticida...
Remdesivir for severe covid-19: a clinical practice guideline26 Aug, 2020Abstract
Clinical question What is the role of remdesivir in the treatment of severe covid-19? This guideline was triggered by the ACTT-1 trial published in the New England Journal of Medicine on 22 May 2020.
Current practice Remdesivir has received worldwide attention as a potentially effective treatment for severe covid-19. After rapid market approval in the US, remdesivir is already being used in clinical practice.
Recommendations The guideline pan...
Elective Surgical Procedure Guidance25 Aug, 2020Current Status
During the COVID-19 pandemic, surgeries and procedures (collectively referred to as “procedures”) for life-threatening conditions or those with a potential to cause permanent disability have been and continue to be allowed.
Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, hospitals and ambulatory surgical treatment centers (ASTCs) have deferred nonessential procedures to conserve resources for the care of COVID-19 patients. Some procedures that could reasonably be delayed for a time hav...
Construction of a simple quality appraisal tool for rapid review of laparoscopic surgery guidelines during COVID‐19 pandemic24 Aug, 2020
The theoretical danger of virus transmission during Laparoscopic Surgery (LS) via surgical smoke and laparoscopy gas prompted several academic/ national associations to issue many rapidly emerging guidelines for laparoscopic during COVID‐19 pandemic. Conventional appraisal tools like GRADE and AGREE II, which assess the quality of evidence and methodological rigor in the development of guidelines, have very rigorous exhaustive checklists. This makes them impractica...
What the immune response to the coronavirus says about the prospects for a vaccine24 Aug, 2020
In the late 1980s, 15 healthy people moved into new apartments in Salisbury, UK. On their third day, each was asked to snort a nostrilful of solution containing a coronavirus — one of several viruses that causes the common cold. Then the volunteers spent three weeks quarantined at the Common Cold Unit, part of the Medical Research Council, where researchers monitored a range of symptoms. Some study participants likened stays at the Common Cold Unit to a vacation — if so, it was a holiday ...
ESSKA guidelines and recommendations for resuming elective surgery24 Aug, 2020Abstract
The roadmap to elective surgery resumption after this COVID-19 pandemic should be progressive and cautious. The aim of this paper was to give recommendations and guidelines for resuming elective orthopedic surgery in the safest environment possible. Elective surgery should be performed in COVID-free facilities and hospital stay should be as short as possible. For matters of safety, patients considered first for surgery should be carefully selected according to COVID infection stat...
The FDA-approved drug ivermectin inhibits the replication of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro19 Aug, 2020Abstract
Although several clinical trials are now underway to test possible therapies, the worldwide response to the COVID-19 outbreak has been largely limited to monitoring/containment. We report here that Ivermectin, an FDA-approved anti-parasitic previously shown to have broad-spectrum anti-viral activity in vitro, is an inhibitor of the causative virus (SARS-CoV-2), with a single addition to Vero-hSLAM cells 2 h post infection with SARS-CoV-2 able to effect ~5000-fold reducti...