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    A noncompeting pair of human neutralizing antibodies block COVID-19 virus binding to its receptor ACE2

    14 May, 2020
    Neutralizing antibodies could be antivirals against COVID-19 pandemics. Here, we report isolation of four human-origin monoclonal antibodies from a convalescent patient, all of which display neutralization abilities. B38 and H4 block the binding between virus S-protein RBD and cellular receptor ACE2. A competition assay indicates their different epitopes on the RBD, making them a potential virus-targeting MAb-pair to avoid immune escape in future clinical applications. Moreove...
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    Structural Basis for Potent Neutralization of Betacoronaviruses by Single-Domain Camelid Antibodies

    14 May, 2020

    Coronaviruses make use of a large envelope protein called spike (S) to engage host cell receptors and catalyze membrane fusion. Because of the vital role that these S proteins play, they represent a vulnerable target for the development of therapeutics. Here, we describe the isolation of single-domain antibodies (VHHs) from a llama immunized with prefusion-stabilized coronavirus spikes. These VHHs neutralize MERS-CoV or SARS-CoV-1 S pseudotyped viruses, respectively. Crystal structur...
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    Retinal findings in patients with COVID-19

    13 May, 2020
    Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been shown to affect different parts of the body, and ophthalmological changes have been associated with ocular external diseases such as conjunctivitis.
    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive imaging technique that is useful for demonstrating subclinical retinal changes in systemic conditions such as diabetes, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease, as well as many viral infections. We used OCT to evaluate patients infected ...
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    Manifestations and prognosis of gastrointestinal and liver involvement in patients with COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    13 May, 2020
    The prevalence and prognosis of digestive system involvement, including gastrointestinal symptoms and liver injury, in patients with COVID-19 remains largely unknown. We aimed to quantify the effects of COVID-19 on the digestive system.
    In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we systematically searched PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science for studies published between Jan 1, 2020, and April 4, 2020. The websites of WHO, CDC, and major journals were also searched. We included studies t...
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    Association of Treatment With Hydroxychloroquine or Azithromycin With In-Hospital Mortality in Patients With COVID-19 in New York State

    12 May, 2020
    Among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is there an association between use of hydroxychloroquine, with or without azithromycin, and in-hospital mortality?

    In a retrospective cohort study of 1438 patients hospitalized in metropolitan New York, compared with treatment with neither drug, the adjusted hazard ratio for in-hospital mortality for treatment with hydroxychloroquine alone was 1.08, for azithromycin alone was 0.56, and...
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    The pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 in hACE2 transgenic mice

    11 May, 2020

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV-2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused the corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases in China and has become a public health emergency of international concern1. Because angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the cell entry receptor of SARS-CoV5, we used transgenic mice bearing human ACE2 and infected with SARS-CoV-2 to study the pathogenicity of the virus. Weight loss and virus replication in lung were observed in hACE2 mice infected with SARS-CoV-2. The typical ...
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    Triple combination of interferon beta-1b, lopinavir–ritonavir, and ribavirin in the treatment of patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19: an open-label, randomised, phase 2 trial

    11 May, 2020
    Effective antiviral therapy is important for tackling the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We assessed the efficacy and safety of combined interferon beta-1b, lopinavir–ritonavir, and ribavirin for treating patients with COVID-19. This was a multicentre, prospective, open-label, randomised, phase 2 trial in adults with COVID-19 who were admitted to six hospitals in Hong Kong. Patients were randomly assigned (2:1) to a 14-day combination of lopinavir 400 mg and ritonavir ...
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    Vitamin D levels appear to play role in COVID-19 mortality rates

    8 May, 2020
    After studying global data from the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, researchers have discovered a strong correlation between severe vitamin D deficiency and mortality rates.

    Led by Northwestern University, the research team conducted a statistical analysis of data from hospitals and clinics across China, France, Germany, Italy, Iran, South Korea, Spain, Switzerland, the United Kingdom (UK) and the United States.

    The researchers noted that patients from countries with high...
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    Interleukin-1 blockade with high-dose anakinra in patients with COVID-19, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and hyperinflammation: a retrospective cohort study

    8 May, 2020
    Mortality of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and systemic inflammation is high. In areas of pandemic outbreak, the number of patients can exceed maximum capacity of intensive care units (ICUs), and, thus, these individuals often receive non-invasive ventilation outside of the ICU. Effective treatments for this population are needed urgently. Anakinra is a recombinant interleukin-1 receptor antagonist that might be beneficial i...
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    Blood thinners may improve survival among hospitalized COVID-19 patients

    8 May, 2020

    Research could change standard of care protocols to prevent clotting associated with coronavirus.

    Treating hospitalized COVID-19 patients with anticoagulants -- blood thinners that slow down clotting -- may improve their chances of survival, researchers from the Mount Sinai COVID Informatics Center report. The study, published in the May 6 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology, could provide new insight on how to treat and manage coronavirus patients once ...
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    Observational Study of Hydroxychloroquine in Hospitalized Patients with Covid-19

    8 May, 2020
    Hydroxychloroquine has been widely administered to patients with Covid-19 without robust evidence supporting its use.
    METHODS We examined the association between hydroxychloroquine use and intubation or death at a large medical center in New York City. Data were obtained regarding consecutive patients hospitalized with Covid-19, excluding those who were intubated, died, or discharged within 24 hours after presentation to the emergency department (study baseline). The primary end po...
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    COVID‐19: Impact on Colorectal Surgery

    7 May, 2020
    AbstractThe rapid spread of the COVID‐19 pandemic created unprecedented challenges for the medical and surgical healthcare systems. With the ongoing need for urgent and emergency colorectal surgery including colorectal cancer surgeries, several questions pertaining to the operating room (OR) utilization and techniques needed to be rapidly addressed. Although patient safety is of paramount importance, caregiver safety is also a critical consideration. During the COVID‐19 pandemic, additional p...